Hygiene of populated placesISSN: 2707-0441 eISSN: 2707-045X
Issue 73, 2023   -   Pages: 9-16
THE SIMPLEST SHELTER A MODERN HEALTH PRESERVATION COMPONENT OF CHILDRENS PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF WAR
V.M. Makhniuk1, N.P. Pavlenko1, S.M. Mohylnyi1, V.V. Makhniuk1
1 STATE INSTITUTION O.M. MARZIEIEV INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NAMSU

: 613.5:727.1:317.61/62
https://doi.org/10.32402/hygiene2023.73.009

SUMMRY:
The issue of the safety of the educational process in educational institutions, where children are distant from their parents and need special protection in conditions of martial law. Therefore, to study normative indicators, sanitary and hygienic requirements for the premises of the simplest shelter in existing preschool educational institutions and those that will be built under the conditions of the National Reconstruction Program of Ukraine, which determined the relevance of our research.
The purpose of the work is to study the normative and actual indicators, the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the premises of the simplest shelter in existing preschool educational institutions and the development of sanitary and hygienic requirements for those that will be built under the conditions of the National Reconstruction Program of Ukraine.
The object of the research was existing and planned preschool educational institutions, normative documents of sanitary and urban planning legislation of Ukraine and some countries of the world in the field of designing the simplest shelter in them.
To realize the goals set in the work, a complex of general scientific and special research methods was used: bibliosemantic; theoretical, analytical.
Research results and their discussion. In the course of research, the state of security of the children's population of Ukraine in public health centers during the period of Ukraine's independence was analyzed. According to the results of the study of the Recommendations on the organization of shelter in the objects of the fund of protective structures of the civil protection of personnel and children (pupils, students) of educational institutions, the basic requirements for shelters in the EI have been determined. According to the results of the report of the commissions on the technical inspection of the shelters of the EI, conducted in accordance with the procedure determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the most common deficiencies in the arrangement of the shelters were revealed.
According to the studied experience of Israel, in accordance with the Law of Israel On Civil Defense (as amended), protective shelters are built in all EI in the underground space under each main room of the cell with a connection to it according to the principle of a children's slide, in order to get into them during the announcement air alarm in 20 seconds.
Conclusions.
As a result of the circumstances caused by the consequences of the ongoing large-scale armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, and with the aim of increasing the level of safety of children, their parents, educators and staff in the conditions of martial law, it is reasonable to place them in the basement (basement) floors during the construction and/or restoration of the kindergarten. protective structures of civil protection, which will comply with the main provisions of the latest legislation of Ukraine in compliance with the regulatory requirements of Ukraine and taking into account foreign experience.
1. As a result of the circumstances caused by the consequences of the ongoing large-scale armed aggression of the russian federation against Ukraine, and with the aim of increasing the level of safety of children, their parents, educators and staff in the conditions of martial law, it is reasonable to place them in the basement (basement) floors during the construction and/or restoration of the kindergarten.
The specified civil defense protective structures must comply with the main provisions of the latest regulatory framework of sanitary and urban planning legislation of Ukraine and take into account the foreign experience of warring countries.
2. In the affected areas of the country, instead of the destroyed public transport facilities, temporary modular facilities should be built to meet the needs of the population and relieve existing facilities.
3. In the EI, where there are no or insufficient shelters? to equip adjacent street shelters of various shapes and capacities from 2 to 20 people.

REFERENCES:
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FOR CITATION:
Makhniuk VM, Pavlenko NP, Mohylnyi SM, Makhniuk VV. [The simplest shelter a modern health preservation component of childrens pre-school institutions in the conditions of war]. Hygiene of Populated Places. 2023;73:9-16. Ukrainian.